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50                                SHIPPING PRACTICE

has loaded the cargo, and paid the charges incurred, his
liability ceases.

2,  Description of cargo. This is phrased as "The charterer

shall load a full and complete cargo of.-------..........not

exceeding_________tons, not less than........................tons."

A full and complete caigo may be described as a quantity
sufficient to -sfafc the vessel to her load line in excess of
tackle, provisions, furniture, etc.  The two quantities are
stipulations between which any amount constitutes a full
and complete cargo.

3.  Options of other ports and cargoes. Gives permission for
the vessel to carry other cargo than that fixed in the charter-
party, usually, however, at the same rate of freight, and
also the option of calling at other ports for loading and

The principal disputes which arise in connection with
charter-party agreements are usually with reference to
the meaning of clauses, and the ambiguous way in which
they are drawn up, giving lack of definite expression.
Protection and indemnity clubs to which reference will be
made later, are always anxious that owners shall wherever
possible fix steamers upon some recognized charter-party
form, in order to avoid possible extra liability.

The fact that charter-parties are generally printed does
not prevent a charter-party being fixed on any other form.
Charters may be made upon plain paper, by letter, or even
by telegram, and it has been known for a charter-party to
be drawn up on the bade of an envelope.

By the adoption of a printed form, however, the con-
ditions as printed may be altered or amended to suit the
drcumstances of charterer or owner, in which case altera-
tions are made to the existing print. In these cases the
written clauses and amendments always overrule the
printed conditions; such alterations must, however, be made
with care, as the alteration of one clause may lead to
alteration through contradiction of many others.

Charter-parties may be made by word of mouth. Such a
practice, however, is most unsatisfactory, as there is no